Tag Archive for Начальный уровень

Тренировочные упражнения. Сравнительная конструкция с союзом AS…AS. Elementary.

Каждое, даже самое незначительное, на первый взгляд, грамматическое правило необходимо отработать до полного автоматизма в тренировочных упражнениях. Знать и понимать грамматические правила вовсе не означает, что вы умеете ими свободно пользоваться. Начинать всегда надо с самого простого, с английских несложных предложений, в которых предложения построены по правилу, которое предполагается отработать.

Займемся сравнительными конструкциями. Напоминаю, что их всего три. Первая сравнительная конструкция с союзом: AS…AS, вторая сравнительная конструкция с союзом:THAN , и, наконец, третья конструкция с определенными артиклями: THE…THE… .

Сейчас на очереди первая сравнительная конструкция.

Поставьте следующие утвердительные (+) предложения в отрицательную (-) и вопросительную (?) формы.

Существует четыре модели в первой и второй сравнительной конструкции, поэтому я разделила предложения на четыре группы:  A,B,C,D.

Можно выполнять упражнение устно и письменно, но устная речь  предпочтительней. Само собой  разумеется, следует понимать смысл английских предложений, но они очень простые и затруднений не предвидится.

А. Если сравниваются разные объекты.

1. This problem is as serious as the others.

2. John was as sensitive as a girl.

3. These sisters are as beautiful as their mother.

4. He is as witty  as his brother.

5. My grandfather was as brave as a lion.

6. The sun is as hot as fire.

7. They are as careful as their brother.

8. The sea is as blue as the sky.

9. The film is as interesting as the book.

10. This child is as shy as a mouse.

11. The air is as fresh here as at the seaside.

12. Her heart felt as heavy as lead.

13. These stories are as funny as anecdotes.

14. My father is as busy as a bee.

15. Her grandmother was as poor as a church mouse.

16. Her voice was as clear as the bell.

17. These flowers are as bright as a butterfly.

18. His reading is as bad as his phonetics.

19. Her skin was as white as snow.

20. This man is as blind as a bat.

B. Если сравниваются одинаковые объекты с указательными местоимениями:this/that; these/those;

1. This question is as difficult as that one.

2. These rooms are as large as those ones.

3. This boy is as tall as that one.

4. This road is as long as that one.

5. These books are as boring as that ones.

6. This garden is as beautiful as that one.

7. Their new flat is as comfortable as the old one.

8. These boys are as lazy as those ones.

9. This box was as heavy as that one.

10. This skirt is as short as that one.

11. This path was as narrow as that one.

12. This man is as strong as the tall one.

13. This forest is as thick as that one.

14. These texts are as easy as those ones.

15. These apples are as sweet as those ones.

16. These rooms are as dark as those ones.

17. Your new dress is as long as the old one.

18. The red pencil is as hard as the green one.

19. The long road is as dirty as the short one.

20. This stuff is as good as that one.

C. Если определителем сравниваемых существительных является притяжательные местоимения. Абсолютная форма притяжательных местоимений.

1. My mother is as old as yours.

2. Her hair is as fair as mine.

3. Your neighbours were as nice as ours.

4. His father was as famous as hers.

5. Their children are as noisy as yours.

6. Her jacket is as warm as mine.

7. Their mistakes were as bad as yours.

8. His hands are as little as hers.

9. Your story is as funny as his.

10. Our lessons are as interesting as theirs.

11. Their luggage was as heavy as ours.

12. His marks are as excelllent as mine.

13. Their work is as difficult as yours.

14. His voice is as deep as hers.

15. Her singing is as sweet as yours.

16. Their family is as large as yours.

17. Your rooms are as light as his.

18. Our garden is as lovely as theirs.

19. Our answers are as ready as theirs.

20. Her welcome was as hearty as his.

D. Если есть притяжательный падеж существительных.

1. His work is as interesting as his father’s.

2. My task was as easy as my sister’s.

3. Your rooms are as light as your parents’.

4. Her hair is as long as her mother’s.

5. Our flat is as comfortable as your friend’s.

6. His eyes are as black as his brother’s.

7. Their apple-trees are as big as their neighbours’.

8. His library ia as rich as his friend’s.

9. Her smile is as pleasant as her sister’s.

10. Our work is as important as their friend’s.

11. Her days are as busy as her husband’s.

12. His health was as good as her wife’s.

13. Her eyes are as sad as her mother’s.

14. My watch is as new as my friend’s.

15. His beard is as long as his brother’s.

16. His face is as noble as his father’s.

17. My pronunciation is as good as my teacher’s.

18. Her children are as liitle as her sister’s.

19. His dog is as big as his father’s.

20. Her voice is as deep as her mother’s.

Тренировочные упражнения. Повелительное наклонение. Elementary.

Побуждение к действию может адресоваться ко  второму лицу ( лицам); третьему лицу ( лицам) и к первому лицу(лицам).

Обычно обращения с просьбой , советом, приказом, рекомендацией приказ, просьба адресуются собеседнику( собеседникам), то есть ко второму лицу ( лицам). Вот с них и начнем отрабатывать полученные знания. Упражнения в повелительном наклонение – идеальная тренировка для запоминания ГЛАГОЛОВ.

Я напишу несколько словосочетаний с глаголами. Образуйте  отрицательные предложения в повелительном наклонении. Для примера, рядом в скобках я напишу свои варианты отрицания. Само собой разумеется, надо понимать смысл английских предложений.

1. to  talk so loudly.            ( Don’t talk so loudly, please. The children are sleeping.)

2. to reply to this letter.       ( Please don’t reply to this letter now. Do it later.)

3. to be late for the meeting. ( Please don’t be late for the meeting. Be in time.)

4. to wake somebody up early. ( Don’t wake me up early tomorrow morning, mother.)

5. to sit on the ground.           ( Children, don’t sit on the ground, please. It is damp.)

6. to put one’s feet on the desk.  ( Don’t put your feet on the desk, young man. Behave youself!)

7. to be cruel to somebody.        ( Never be cruel to animals, children.)

8. to disturb somebody.              ( Don’t disturb your granny, John. She is having a rest.)

9. to copy from the next person. ( Please don’t copy from the next person, students.)

10. to  be upset about it.            ( Anna, don’t be so upset about it, please. Everything will be well.)

11. to look out of the window.      ( Don’t be look out of the window, Tom.)

12. to  throw things at somebody.  ( Don’t throw stones at the dog, children.)

13. to be ashamed of something.    ( Never be ashamed of telling the truth, sonny.)

14. to leave the room.                      ( Please don’t leave the room. Stay here for a while.)

15. to hurt one’s feelings.                  ( Don’t  hurt her feelings, please. She is very touchy. )

16. to be scared of something.           ( Don’t be scared of taking your examination.)

17. to refuse somebody’s help.            ( George, don’t refuse your father’s help, please.)

18. to climb the tree.                         ( Don’t climb the tree, children. You can fall down.)

19. to be envious of somebody.            ( Never be envious  of other people.)

20. to miss classes.                             ( Don’t miss your classes. You must have your English every day.

21. to touch exhibits in the museum.           ( Please, don’t touch the exhibits in the museum.)

22. to be angry with somebody.                     ( Please don’t be angry with me for not ringing you up.)

23. to treat one’s children badly.                    ( Never treat your children badly.)

24. to  mention this fact.                               ( Please don’t mention this fact at the meeting.)

25. to rely on somebody.                               ( Anna, don’t rely on this man, please. He will fail you.)

26. to be surprised at something.                    ( Don’t be surprised at his doing everything.)

27.  to agree with somebody.                        ( Please don’t agree with him.)

28. to interfere in a conversation.                   ( Please don’t interfere in our conversation, children.)

29. to complain to somebody.                         ( Please don’t complain to my mother, Tom.)

30. to worry about triffles.                             ( Mother, don’t worry about trifles.)

31. to show the letter to somebody.                ( Please don’t show this letter to my father. He will get furious about it.)

32. to waste one’s time on useless things.        ( Don’t waste your time on useless things, sonny.)

33. to remind somebody about it.                    ( Please don’t remind my wife about it. I do hope she forgot everything.)

34. to hesitate to do it.                                ( Please don’t hesitate to do it.)

35. to be nervous.                                       ( Don’t be so nervous, Anna.)

36. pretend to be asleep.                              ( Don’t pretend to be asleep, my child.)

37. to be silent.                                           ( Don’t be silent. Say something.)

38. to create difficulties.                               ( Please don’t create difficulties. Do everything properly.)

39. to invent excuses.                                   ( Don’t invent excuses, please.)

40. to  argue with somebody.                          ( Don’t argue with your people.)

Тренировочные упражнения. Вопросы с вводными фразами (parentheses).”Asking for repeatition” questions. Elementary.

Часто бывает такая ситуация: двое разговаривают друг с другом, но один из собеседников не понял ( или не расслышал) , слово, словосочетание или все высказывание другого собеседника или просто хочет уточнить что-либо. Тогда выручают вопросы с просьбой о повторении непонятого слова, словосочетания или всего высказывания. Такие вопросы так и называются: “asking for a repeatition” questions. Это — вопросы с вводными фразами (parentheses), о которых я уже рассказывала. Теперь надо отработать пройденный материал.

Начнем тренироваться самого простого. Я напишу фразу на английском языке и отмечу в этом предложении слово ( словосочетание) к которому и надо поставить вопрос с просьбой о повторении. В конце упражнения я напишу правильно составленные “asking for a repeatition” questions =  вопросы c просьбой о повторении  и вы сможете себя проверить.

Для ясности напишу пример:

Дано высказывание: I says: “ This conference will take place in London”.

Ключевое слово -“London”, именно его вы не расслышали или просто хотите уточнить. Составляю вопрос с просьбой о повторении, то есть с вводной фразой.

Where do you say the conference will take place? = Где, вы говорите, будет проводиться конференция?

Попробуйте самостоятельно составить вопросы с просьбой о повторении (“asking for repeatition questions) по высказыванию.

1. Дано высказывание: I said,  “John will take a holiday in May”.

You asked, “ … ?”

2. Дано высказывание: Ann says: “ My boy-friend gave me a car for my birthday.”

You asks: “… ?”

3.Дано высказывание: I said: “ His name is James.”

You asked: “… ?”

4. Дано высказывание:  She says: “ My brother works at an office.”

You asks: “… ?”

5. Дано высказывание: Tom said: “ In New York state you can get a driving licence when you are sixteen.”

You asked: “…?”

6. Дано высказывание: Dennis wrote: “ I complained to the manager of the restaurant about the food.”

You asked:”…?”

7. Дано высказывание: He said: “ A strange thing happened to me the other day.”

You asked:”…?”

8. Дано высказывание: Mary says: “ I have searched the whole house for my keys but I still can’t find them”.

You asks: “…?”

9. Дано высказывание: George writes: “ This house reminds me of the one I lived in when I was a child.”

You asks: “…?”

10. Дано высказывание: My teacher said: “ George Orwell’s books have been translated into many languages.”

You asked: “…?”

Напишу “asking for a repeatition” questions и переведу их на русский язык.

1.You asked: “When did you say John would take a holiday?” = “ Когда, как вы сказали, Джон возьмет отпуск?”

2. You asks: “ What does Ann say her boy–friend gave her for her birthday?”  = “Что, как Анна говорит, ее друг подарил ей на день рождения?”

3. You asked: “ What did you say his name was?” =  “Как, вы сказали, его зовут?”

4. You asks: “ Where does she say her brother work?” =  “Где, как она говорит, ее брат работает?”

5. You asked: “ What did Tom say you could get in New York state  when you were sixteen?” = Что, как Том сказал, вы можете получить в штате Нью Йорк, когда вам исполниться шестнадцать?”

6. You asked: “ Who did Dennis write he had complained to about the food?” = “Кому, как Деннис написал, он пожаловался на еду?”

7. You asked: “ When did he say a strange thing had happened to him?” = “Когда, как он сказал, что-то странное с ним случилось?”

8. You asks: “ What does Mary say she has searched for the whole house but she still can’t find?” = “Что, как Мария говорит, она искала по всему дому и все еще не может найти?”

9. You asks: “ What does George write this house reminds him of ?” = “ Что, как Джордж пишет, это дом ему напоминает?”

10. You asked: “ Whose books did your teacher say had been translated into many languages?” = “ Чьи книги, как твой учитель сказал, были переведены на многие языки?”

Тренировочные упражнения. Вопросы с вводными фразами (parentheses). “Do-you-think” questions. Elementary.

Вопросы с вводными фразами (parentheses) часто встречаются в реальной жизни, поэтому к ним стоит повнимательнее присмотреться и отработать до автоматизма. Напоминаю, что вопросы с вводными фразами (parentheses) можно разделить на два типа: вопросы о мнении, так называемые “do-you-think” questions и вопросы с просьбой о повторении, их можно назвать “ asking for repetition” questions.

Давайте потренируемся составлять “do-you-think” questions, которые состоят из двух вопросов, один из которых, собственно говоря, и является вопросом, а второй – это вопрос о мнении собеседника.

Начнем с самого простого. Я напишу попарно два вопроса, которые надо объединить в один вопрос с вводной фразой (parenthesis). Рядом в скобках я напишу правильный ответ и вы сможете себя проверить. Само собой разумеется надо понимать смысл английских предложений.

1. Why did he mention it? +  What do you think ?

( Why do you think he mentioned it?)

2. Where are the children now? + What do you think ?

( Where do you think the children are now?)

3. Will they come tonight? + What do you think?

( Do you think they will come?)

4. Why doesn’t England go over to the right-hand traffic? + What do you think?

(Why do you think England doesn’t go over to the right-hand traffic?)

5. What is the device used for? + What do you think?

( What do you think the device is used for?)

6. Is English grammar more difficult than Russian grammar? + What do you think?

( Do you think English grammar is more difficult than Russian grammar?)

7. How long will it take us to read this play by Oscar Wilde? + What do you think?

( How long do you think it will take us to read this play by Oscar Wilde?)

8. Do they like to go sightseeing with a guide? + what do you think?

( Do you think they like to go sightseeing with a guide?)

9. Which foreign countries has he been to? + What do you think?

( Which foreign countries do you think he has been to?)

10. Why are sport, art and hobbies the best topics for light social conversation? + What do you think?

( Why do you think sport, art and hobbies are the best topics for light social conversation?)

11. Was George surprised at his examination results? + What do you think?

( Do you think George was surprised at his examinaation results)

12. When will you be able to read original English books? + What do you think?

( When do you think you will be able to read original English books?)

13. What do we have to do to learn to speak a foreign language? + What do you think?

( What do you think we have to do to learn to speak a foreign language?)

14. Can we begin swimming and sunbathing early in May? + What do you think?

( Do you think we can begin swimming and sunbathing early in May?)

15. Why do many people like to read crime stories? + What do you think?

( Why do you think many people like to read crime stories?)

16. Will you be very busy whan preparing for your exams? + What do you think?

( Do you think you will be very busy when preparing for your exams?)

17. What was the matter with Ann? + What do you think? ( What do you think the matter with Ann was?)

18. Must we start doing the work at once? + What do you think?

( Do you think we must start doing the work at once?)

19. Who advised him to begin learning English again? + What do you think?

( Who do you think advised him to begin learning again?)

20. Why should the patient have confidence in the doctor? + What do you think?

( Why do you think the patient should have confdence in the doctor?)

21. When will your son be able to speak English? + What do you think?

( When do you think your son will be able to speak English?)

22. Which of these students is good at sports and games? + What do you think?

( Which of these students do you think is good at sports and games?)

23. Why is it good to start learning a foreign language at an early age? + What do you think?

( Why do you think it is good to start learning a foreign language at an early age?)

24. Who do these things belong to? + What do you think?

Who do you think these things belong to?)

25. Why is it necessary for children to spend a lot of time in the open air? + What do you think?

( Why do you think it is necessary for children to spend a lot of timein the open air?)

Тренировочные упражнения. Альтернативные вопросы. Elementary.

Что представляют из себя альтернативные вопросы я уже рассказала, теперь надо заняться тренировочными упражнениями. Хотя эта тема и не кажется слишком сложной, но отрабатывать надо всю грамматику.

Как обычно, начинаем с самого простого, о потом уже перейдем к переводам на английский язык. Напоминаю, что альтернативный  вопрос состоит из двух общих вопросов, и второй вопрос это и есть предлагаемая альтернатива.

Я напишу первую часть альтернативного вопроса, которую надо дополнить вторым общим вопросом, который может быть усеченным или неполным ( кроме вопросов к подлежащему). Альтернативу можно предложить к любому члену общего вопроса. Я выделю то слово, к которому надо поставить второй вопрос и рядом в скобках напишу свой вариант альтернативы, но вы можете предложить любой другой вариант. Альтернатива может быть предложена  и ко всему первому вопросу.

1. Does your sister have her English every day or…                 (… not?)

2. Did you remind George about the party or …                       (… forget?)

3. Is it raining or…                                                              (… snowing?)

4. Can you rely on Tom or…                                                 ( … George?)

5. Have you written to your parents or …                                (… called them up?)

6. Are you going to apologise to him or …                                (… his wife?)

7. Will  Ann be at home at 11 o’clock or…                                ( at 12 o’clock?)

8. Could you visit the museum yesterday or…                          ( … the day before yesterday?)

9. Is everybody aware of the dangers of smoking these days or… (…not?)

10. Has John buy a car or …                                                   ( … a motorcycle?)

11. Do you work here or …                                                     (… does Tom?)

12. Were you at home on Monday morning or …                         ( … at work?)

13. Can they come tomorrow or …                                          ( … the day after tomorrow?)

14. Do you want to go out or…                                               (… to stay at home?)

15. Are you laughing at me or…                                               ( … at yourself?)

16. Does this decision depends on you or …                               ( … your husband?)

17. Did you come here on bicycle or….                                     ( …by bus?)

18. Can you skate well or…                                                     (.. ski?)

19. Do these ladies go to the theatre on Saturday evenings or…   (… do they stay at home?)

20. Was you brother in time for his lesson yesterday or…             (..not?)

21. Does Ann translate from English or …                                  (…  from German?)

22. Are you looking for Tom or…                                               (… George?)

23. Have you been to China this year or…                                   ( … to Japan?)

24. Was it very cold yesterday or …                                            (…cool?)

25. Do the children wake up at seven o’clock or…                    (… at eight o’clock?)

26. Did you go to the seaside or …                         ( … to the mountains?)

27. Does your friend work at an office or …                               (… at a factory?)

28. Did you watch the match on television or …                       (… listen to it on the radio?)

29. Was Tom responsible for this work or …                           ( … was John?)

30. Did you drink tea for breakfast or …                                   (…coffee?)

31. Shall I answer this question or                                            (… shall Ann?)

32. Has Mary gone to Italy or …                                             (… to France?)

33. Do you usually go for a walk in the morning or …                  (…in the evening?)

34. Children must obey their parents or                                  (… grandparents?)

35. Did you understand your last grammar lesson or …                ( …not?)

36. Were you waiting for Ann yesterday or …                            ( … for Mary?)

37. Is Mary  very fond of dancing or…                                      (… singing?)

38. Did our friend go to England by air or …                             (… by sea?)

39 Does this car belong to George or…                                   ( … Tom?)

40. Are you going to revise the grammar rules this evening or …   ( … tomorrow?)

41. Did Ann do well at college or …                                         ( …not?)

42. Are you speaking English or …                                           ( … Russian?)

43. Did you go to the country for the last week-end or…           ( … did you stay in town?)

44. Do you play tennis on week-days or …                               (… at the weekend?)

45. Are you interested in music or …                                       ( … architeture?)

46. Do you do many exercises at home or …                             ( …not?)

47. Can you phone me this evening or                                 (… tomorrow morning?)

48. Will you have to leave tonight or                                    ( … to stay here?)

49. Did they grow their own vegetables or …                         (… buy them?)

50. Has he got much money or …                                         (… little money?)

Тренировочные упражнения. Общие и специальные вопросы с отрицанием. Elementary.

Грамматика- это целый список правил, по которым работает язык. Все правила взаимосвязаны между собой. После того как вы выучили или прочитали и поняли какое-то из правил, то это вовсе не значит, что вы можете его резво использовать в речи. Просто понимать правило и уметь бойко рассказать его на уроке означает, что вы всего лишь знакомы с этим правилом, но до настоящей дружбы еще далеко.

Любое правило надо вводить в действие, и оно должно работать, то есть попросту говоря сначала его надо отработать в “технических” тренировочных упражнениях, а потом использовать в  реальной живой речи (устной или письменной).

Начинать надо с самых простых упражнений на английском языке, чтобы, так сказать, попривыкнуть к новой грамматике. Постепенно усложняя задания заканчиваем тренировку переводами с родного языка на английский. Счет на достаточное количество предложений, которые входят в тренировочные упражнения всегда идет на сотни. Но у каждого своя предельное число, кому-то хватает 200-300 предложений , чтобы не тормозить и запинаться, а кому-то и тысячи мало. Но в конечном итоге барьер ломается у всех, при условии ежедневных занятий..

Итак, я рассказала об общих и специальных вопросах с отрицанием.

В этом упражнении надо поставить все вопросы в отрицательную форму и перевести. Задание очень простое, и конечно лучше всего его делать устно, но можно и  написать, почему бы и нет?

1. Are they going to help their mother?

2. Who has eaten the apples?

3. What did she want to tell you?

4. Who needs much money?

5. Can you explain this word to me?

6. What kind of exersises  could she do in your test?

7. Were your children at school  yesterday?

8. Why do you go to bed early tonight?

9. Can she sing as well as her sister?

10. Which of these students  was disappointed with his examination results?

11. Shall we meet tomorrow?

12. Why does he walk to work?

13. Is there enough for ys all?

14. Will reading a lot of books help you to speak better?

15. What makes people fat?

16. Are you going to have your English tonight?

17. Which of these things belongs to you?

18. Can you hear those people?

19. Are they ready to answer all these questions?

20. Which of you wants to know English well?

21. Could you remember my name?

22. Who is afraid of dogs?

23. Is he going to apologise to you?

24. Will you brother be here tomorrow?

25. Which of you is going to stay at a hotel?

26. Can you drive a car?

27. What did you tell him yesterday?

28. Ought she to pay you at once?

29. Is your granny tired?

30. Who is on duty today?

31. Who will stay at home over the week -end?

32. Did they have to light fire to cook their supper?

33.Are you leaving tomorrow?

34. Is your son going to apply for a job?

35. Were you impressed by this film?

36. Could you make an omelette this morning?

37. Are you going to wash your car?

38. Who was good at mathematics in your class?

39. Are they going to buy a car?

40. Are you going to ring him up ?

41. Was Tom  responsible for this work?

42. Who has been busy this week?

43. Could he find his way to your house yesterday?

44. Were John accused of cheating in the examination?

45. Did you have a car when you lived in London?

46. Are you excited about going on business tomorrow?

47. What other coutries have you been to?

48. Are you envious of other people?

49. Did you have a swim this morning?

50. Can she pay his bills?

Тренировочные упражнения. Разделительные вопросы. Elementary.

Любое грамматическое правило надо отработать в тренировочных упражнениях и сразу же активно использовать в речи ( письменной и устной). Чтобы, так сказать, привыкнуть к новой грамматике, начинаем с самого простого, с английских предложений. В следующем упражнении надо закончить английские предложения вопросительным оборотом, чтобы получить разделительный вопрос. Задача очень простая, и лучше всего выполнять ее устно, практикуясь в произношении. Грамматика простая, так как для начала надо сам процесс образования вопросительных “хвостиков”  довести  до автоматизма.  Само собой разумеется, надо понимать смысл предложений, то есть при надобности находить незнакомые слова в словаре. Рядом в скобках я написала ответы, чтобы можно было себя проверить.

1. This student is answering  now, …?                   (…, isn’t he?)

2. You won’t be late for your lesson, …?                 (…, will you?)

3. John didn’t come yesterday, …?                         (…, did he?)

4. This picture is very nice, … ?                            ( …, isn’t it?)

5. This winter hasn’t been cold, …?                        (…, has it?)

6. Your mother helps you with English, …?               (…,  doesn’t she?)

7. You broke the window yesterday, …?                  (…, didn’t you?)

8. Ann is too young to live on her own, …?              (…, isn’t she?)

9. Your sister is going to learn English, …?               (…, doesn’t she?)

10. He has finished his work yet, …?                         (…., has he?)

11. We got home very late, …?                                (…, didn’t we?)

12. George drinks too much, …?                               ( …, doesn’t he?)

13. She is greedy, …?                                             (…, isn’t she?)

14. My wife cooks well, …?                                      (…, doesn’t she?)

15. They have been to Switzerland, …?                     ( …, haven’t they?)

16. I didn’t hurt you, …?                                         (…, did I?)

17. You don’t like sugar, …?                                     (…, do you?)

18. Your parents aren’t in London, …?                        ( …, are they?)

19. She doesn’t want to go, …?                                (…, does she?)

20. Your friend has just been here, …?                       (…, hasn’t he?)

21. The children are sleeping now, …?                         (…, aren’t they?)

22. That boy ran very fast, …?                                 (…, didn’t he?)

23. He meets his daughter after school, …?                  (…, doesn’t he?)

24. Your brother is going to London tomorrow,…?           (…, isn’t he?)

25. The alarm clock has already rung, …?                     (…, hasn’t it?)

26. You made a lot of mistakes, …?                             (…, didn’t you?)

27. The lesson is over, …?                                          (…, isn’t it?)

28. You don’t help your mother, …?                              (…, do you?)

29. You haven’t seen this film yet, …?                           (…, have you?)

30. You aren’t going to answer my question, …?              (…, are you?)

31. She didn’t tell her parents about her trouble, …?        (…, did she?)

32. Your father works in the garden in the evening, …?    (…, does he?)

33. You are ready to answer my questions, …?               (…, aren’t you?)

34. She has spoken to him lately, …?                             (…, hasn’t she?)

35. This student wrote an excellent composition, …?         (…, didn’t he?)

36. Their children learn English, …?                                 (…, don’t they?)

37. Your granny is ill,…?                                                (… isn’t she?)

38. Your son has just passed all his exams, …?                  (…, hasn’t he?)

39. Your sister isn’t going to help you, …?                         ( …, is she?)

40. Your friend moved to a new flat, …?                            ( …, didn’t he?)

41. John isn’t here, …?                                                   ( …, is he?)

42. Sue doesn’t like onuons, …?                                       (…, does she?)

43. You haven’t taken your medicine yet, …?                     (…, have you?)

44. Ann didn’t translate this article, …?                              (…,  did she?)

45. Bill doesn’t look very well today, …?                             (…, does he?)

46. You are tired, …?                                                     (…, arent’t you?)

47. You have already heard about it, …?                            (…, haven’ t you?)

48. She is going to get married next month, …?                    (…, isn’t she?)

49. You didn’t undestand this rule, …?                                 (… did you?)

50. Nick comes from Japan,…?                                            (…, doesn’t he?)

Тренировочные упражнения. Confusing cases. Оборот “There is/are…” или безличные предложения “It is…”. Elementary.

Итак, задача первостепенной важности при переводе с родного языка на английский язык – это безошибочно определить вид предложения.

Иногда возникает путаница, если предложение начинается с обстоятельства места, то есть со слов ( или слова), которые отвечают на вопрос — ГДЕ?. Могут быть такие варианты предложений:

1. В КОМНАТЕ темно.

2. В КОМНАТЕ сейчас играют дети.

3. В КОМНАТЕ два стула и кровать.

Давайте разберемся поподробнее в видах этих трех предложений.

Первое предложение – это безличное предложение первого типа с формальным подлежащим “it”.  It is dark in the room.

Второе предложение – это предложение с прямым порядком слов, и его надо поставить на промежуточный вариант “R-E”: Дети играют в комнате. Тогда перевод будет следующим: The children are playing in the room.

Третье предложение переводится оборотом “There is/are…”. Итак перевод третьего предложения: There are two chairs and a bed in the room.

В следующем упражнении надо заполнить пропуски “THERE” или “IT”. В конце упражнения и напишу правильные ответы, чтобы вы могли себя проверить. Само собой разумеется, предложения надо перевести. Это легкие предложения и, думаю,  затруднений не будет.

1. … were many people in the room; … was very stuffy.

2. … was hard to decide what was the best thing to do.

3. … was nobody at home whan I called for him.

4. … was very wet last month, and now … is windy.

5. … is a beautiful park mear my house.

6. … twenty degrees in the shade.

7. … is raining hard. take an umbrella.

8. … were a lot of visitors this morning.

9. At nine o’clock the next morning I went out. … cold and rainy.

10. … getting cold. … going to snow.

11. … were many villages on the road to town.

12. … is only two miles from here.

13. … are two dogs in the garden.

14. … is dark in the room. I can’t make out anything.

15. … will be a party in our house tomorrow.

16. … was three kilometres from the village to the town.

17. … was an old friend of yours at the concert last night.

18. When I returned home … was 5 o’clock.

19. … was only a footpath here last year.

20. … was snowing heavily yesterday.

21. … are no mistakes in your exercise.

22. … is clearing up . Let’s go out.

23. … four hundred children in the school this year.

24. … is cloudy today. … looks like rain.

25. … is a post office in the village.

26. … often rains in autumn.

27. … was a man standing under the tree ten minutes ago.

28. … is thirsty five degrees above zero today.

29. … was still very early and … was nobody to be seen in the street.

30. … spots even on the sun.

31. What is the weather like today? … keeps fine.

32. … is frosty and still snowing. How bitterly cold it is!

33. … is no royal road to learning.

34. Though the day is hot,  … is cool in the shade.

35. … was a lot of fish in the river some years ago.

36. … didn’t like rain at all this morning. The shower came on all of a sudden.

37. … are no free rooms on this floor.

38. The weather was beastly. … was foggy and rainy.

39. … are some buildings of modern design in that street.

40. … is stuffy in the room. Let’s open the window.

Заполню пропуски в предложениях “There” и “It”,  чтобы вы могли себя проверить.

1. There were many people in the room; it was very stuffy.

2. It was  hard to decide what was the best thing to do.

3. There was nobody at home when I called for him.

4. It was very wet last month, and now it is windy.

5. There is a beautiful park near my home.

6. It was twenty degrees in the shade.

7. It is raining hard. Take an umbrella.

8. There were a lot of visitors this morning.

9. At nine o’clock the next morning I went out. It was cold and rainy.

10. It is getting cold. It is going to snow.

11. There were many villages on the road to town.

12. It is only two miles from here.

13. There are two dogs in the garden.

14. It is dark in the room. I can’t make out anything.

15. There will be a party in our house tomorrow.

16. It was three kilometres from the village to the town

17. There was an old friend of yours at the concert last night.

18. When I returned home it was 5 o’clock.

19. There was only a footpath here last year.

20. It was snowing heavily yesterday.

21. There are no mistakes in your exercise.

22. It is clearing up. Let’s go out.

23. There are four hundred children in the school this year.

24. It is cloudy today. It looks like rain.

25. There is a post office in the village.

26. It often rains in autumn.

27. There was a man standing under the tree ten minutes ago.

28. It is thirty five degrees above zero today.

29. It was still very early and there was nobody to be seen in the street.

30. There are spots even on the sun.

31. What is the weather like today? — It keeps fine.

32. It is frosty and still snowing. How bitterly cold it is!

33. There is no royal road to learning.

34. Though the day is hot it is cool in the shade.

35. There was a lot of fish in this river some years ago.

36. It didn’t like rain at all this morning. The shower came on all of a sudden.

37. There are no free rooms on this floor.

38. The weather was beastly. It was foggy and rainy.

39. There are some buildings of modern design in that street.

40. It is stuffy in the room . Let’s open the window.

Тренировочные упражнения. Безличные предложения первого и второго типа. Intermediate.

Безличные предложения имеют такой же твердый порядок слов, как и личные предложения. Но у безличных предложений в качестве подлежащего выступает формальное подлежащее “IT”, которое не указывает на личность или предмет, не переводится и несет выполняет чисто грамматическую функцию. Безличные предложения описывают природные явления, погодные условия, указывают на время и расстояние.

Первый тип безличных предложений имеет составное именное сказуемое, проще говоря, в таких предложениях нет не только лица, которое выполняет действие, но и простого глагола. Сказуемое складывается из двух составляющих: именной части ( прилагательного или существительного) и глагола-связки.

Второй тип безличных предложений имеет простые глаголы, но надо помнить , что аналогов таким глаголам в русском языке нет. Это такие глаголы, как: to rain, to snow, to hail, to freeze, to sleet, to drizzle, etc.

Даже если все ясно и понятно в том или ином грамматическом правиле, это вовсе не означает, что вы тотчас можете использовать его на практике и бегло изъясняться. Предстоит выполнить тренировочные упражнения всех уровней, и закончить  их переводами с русского языка на английский в данном грамматическом поле. В этот раз – отрабатываем безличные предложения первого и второго типов.

Начинаем с самого простого ( elementary). Первым делом надо увидеть безличные предложения на английском языке, так сказать, познакомиться с ними поближе и устно поставить утвердительные предложения в отрицательную и вопросительные формы. В таких заданиях обычно отрабатывается беглость речи и “привыкание” к новой грамматике. Такое упражнение уже написано.

Немного усложним задание. В следующих предложениях надо поставить глагол-связку “to be” в нужное время и перевести на родной язык.

1. It … a long time ago. I had a dog I always took out for a walk in the evening.

2. It … raining for three hours without stopping.

3. What time is it now? – It … 8 o’clock by my watch.

4. It … only two miles to the station from here. Let’s walk there, shall we?

5. It … cold outside. It … snowing. Put on your coat.

6. It … ten degrees below zero yesterday.

7. When we returned home yesterday it … very late.

8. It .. sleeting all the evening yersterday. The weather was beastly so I didn’t feel like going out.

9. It … rather dull and looks like rain.

10. It … getting cold. The temperature is falling. Stay at home.

11. It … spring weather today. The sun is shining brightly and it… very warm.

12. It … almost 2 o’clock and the night was dark.

13. I think it … hot tomorrow. The temperature is rising.

14. It … not far to any town or village from here.

15. It … too early to make any decision. Let’s think it over once again.

16. What is the weather like today ? – It .. fine today. It .. sunny , but it .. cold for October.

17. It was October, it … drizzling and dark.

18. It … getting dark. It … time to return home.

19. It  … thundering. It looks like a storm.

20. What time did you finish your work? – It … 6 o’clock.

21. It has stopped raining. It … clearing up.

22. It … often close during the rainy season in India.

23.. It … twenty degrees above zero today.

24. It … a long way to the railway station from here. Let’s take a taxi.

25. What was the weather like yesterday? – It … sleeting.

26. It … hot tomorrow. They say, it … thirty five degrees above zero.

27. It … cloudy today. It … going to rain.

28. It … too early to leave. I want to stay here.

29. What day is it today? – It … Tuesday.

30. It … not far from my house to the forest.

31. It … still snowing. There … a lot of snow everywhere tomorrow.

32. Take an umbrella. It … pouring.

33. It … 112 miles from London to Birmingham.

34. It … frosty yesterday. How bitterly cold it …!

35. It … close in the room. Could you please open the window.

36. Though the day is hot, it … cool in the shade.

37. Yesterday it … rainy and foggy. The weather … beastly.

38. It … getting warmer today. It … going to thaw.

39. It … dry and sunny today.

40. What’s the date today? It … the 15th of April, 2014.

Тренировочные упражнения. Безличные предложения первого и второго типа. Elementary.

Напоминаю, что безличные предложения – это предложения, в которых нет подлежащего. Первый и второй тип безличных предложений описывают явления природы, погоду, указывают на время и расстояние.

После того, как освоено очередное грамматическое правило, его необходимо отработать в тренировочных упражнениях. Такие упражнения называются техническими, так как в них отрабатывается устно и письменно ТЕХНИКА соответствующего грамматического правила. Начинаем с самого простого, то есть с “знакомства” с безличными предложениями на английском языке. Читая английский текст, вы встречаете безличные предложения “разбросанными” по всему тексту, то есть среди личных предложений. В упражнении безличные предложения собраны вместе в разных временах. Все предложение написаны в утвердительной форме (+) и их надо поставить в отрицательную (-) и вопросительную (?) формы. Само собой разумеется все предложения надо перевести.

Упражнения такого уровня предназначены для устной речи и здесь просто нужна механическая отработка изученного материала. При желании  можно упражняться и письменно, однако проговорить предложения все же необходимо.

1. It is very cold and windy today. Put on your coat.

2. It was rather late yesterday when we returned home.

3. It is a long way to the city.

4. It is thundering. It looks like a storm.

5. It is two degrees above zero today, but yesterday it was ten degrees below zero.

6. It often rains in autumn.

7. It is very warm outside. The sun is shining. Let’s go for a walk.

8. It was snowing when the plane landed.

9. It is autumn. It is drizzling outside. I don’t feel like going out.

10. It is a long way to my native town from here.

11. It is cloudy today. It is going to rain.

12. It was winter. It snowed heavily.

13. It is still snowing hard. There will be a lot of snow everywhere tomorrow.

14. It is already midnight but he hasn’t come yet.

15. It was very wet last month, and now it is windy.

16. It is slippery today. Look out.

17. It is rather dull and looks like rain.

18. It was raining all the evening yesterday.

19. It is late. Let’s go to bed.

20. It was 30 degrees above zero in the shade on that day.

21. It is unbearably hot even in the shade today.

22. It is getting cold. I think it will snow soon.

23. It is ten kilometres from here to the station.

24. It is freezing. Tomorrow will be slippery

25. It’s pouring. What a pity, I have left my umbrella at home.

26. It is 8 o’ clock now.

27. It is getting dark. It’s time to go home.

28. It is thawing. I expect it will be long.

29. It is often close during the rainy season in India.

30. It was awfully foggy this morning. You could hardly see a yard in front of you.

31. It is dark in the room. I can’t read.

32. It is a long way from my house to the station.

33. It is too early to leave yet.

34. It is three kilometres to the village from here.

35. The church clock struck. It is exactly 5 o’ clock.

36. It is getting warmer. It looks like a thaw.

37. What a pity, it’s just began to rain. – It won’t be much. It’s only spotting hardly enough to lay the dust.

38. When the sun rises , it is morning.

39. When the sun sets, it is evening.

40. When the sun rises, it is light.

41. During the night, if the moon isn’t shining. it is dark.

42. The air is chilly when it is unpleasantly cold.

43. It is only 100 kilometres from here.

44. Though the day is hot, it is cool in the shade.

45. The weather was beastly. It was foggy and sleeting.