Archive for Тренировочные упражнения

Тренировочные упражнения. Present Perfect Continuous Tense. Продвинутый уровень. Advanced. Часть вторая.

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Переведите следующие предложения на английский язык, обращая внимание на группы настоящих времен: Present Indefinite Tense, Present Continuous Tense, Present Perfect Tense, Present Perfect Continuous Tense.

1. Джек решает кроссворд уже полчаса и говорит, что он не закончит его, так как пока он раздумывает над последним словом.

2. Он учится водить машину уже семь лет, но еще не не сдал экзамен на водительские права.

3. Марии снова нет дома. Она опять ушла в кино, хотя она уже ходила туда два раза на этой неделе.

4. Джон уже приехал? – Да, он уже здесь два дня.

5. Анна играет на фортепиано с семи часов; Я надеюсь, она скоро закончит играть.

6. Они не разговаривали с друг другом с тех пор, как поссорились.

7. Всю неделю идет сильный снег и сейчас продолжает идти. Если так пойдет дальше, никто не сможет добраться до города.

8. За последние два месяца овощи подорожали.

9. Те старые часы стоят там столько, сколько я себя помню.

10. Я не вижу его больше недели.

11. Последние три недели я пытаюсь вытащить ее куда-нибудь пообедать.

12. Они строят мост уже несколько месяцев, но еще его не достроили.

13. Я жду Джона уже почти полчаса; не думаешь ли ты, что он забыл, что должен прийти?

14. Уголь становится все дороже с конца прошлого года.

15. Моя одежда висит в шкафу все время с тех пор, как я уехал и сейчас я вижу, что моль проела в ней большие дырки.

16. Я пишу эту статью уже больше часа.

17. Мои часы уже идут три дня и еще не останавливались.

18. Как долго горит этот костер? – Со вчерашнего дня.

19. Он потерял свои книги. Он ищет их целый день, но они еще не нашлись.

20. Вот уже пять лет они каждый год останавливаются в одном и том же отеле.

21. Где вы были? Последние  пять минут вам кто-то звонит.

22. Джек уехал в Шотландию на каникулы. Я никогда там не была.

23. Почему твои ботинки такие мокрые и грязные? Что ты делал?

24. У Джона не было отпуска с позапрошлого года.

25. Где твой муж? – Он уехал в Лондон.

26. Твой муж ездил когда-либо в Лондон?

27. Дети играют в саду с тех пор, как они пришли со школы.

28. Последние шесть месяцев я позирую у художника для своего портрета, но художник еще его не закончил.

29. С прошлой недели у меня плохой сон.

30. Ты идешь в магазин? – Нет, я уже ходил в магазин.

Я переведу все предложения на английский язык, чтобы вы могли себя проверить.

1. Jack has been solving the cross-word puzzle for half an hour already and he says that he is not about to finish it as he has been thinking over the last word.

2. He’s been learning to drive for seven years already, but he hasn’t passed his driving test yet.

3. Mary isn’t at home. She has gone to the cinema again although she has been twice already this week.

4. Has John already come? – Yes, he has been here for two days.

5. Ann has been practising the piano since seven o’clock; I hope she’ll soon finish.

6. They haven’t spoken to each other since they quarrelled.

7. It has been snowing steadily the whole week and it is still snowing. If it goes on like this, nobody will be able to reach the town.

8. For the last two months vegetables have been very expensive.

9. That old clock has been standing there for as long as I can remember.

10. I haven’t seen him for more than a week.

11. I have been trying to take her out somewhere to dinner for the last three weeks.

12. They have been building the bridge for several months already, but they haven’t finished it yet.

13. I have been waiting here nearly half an hour for John; do you think he has forgotten to come?

14. Coal has been becoming dearer since the end of last year.

15. My clothes have been hanging in the wardrobe all the time I was away, and now I see the moths have eaten great holes in them.

16. I have been writing this article  for more than an hour.

17. My watch has been going for three days and it hasn’t run down yet.

18. How long has that fire been burning? – Since last night.

19. He has lost his books. He has been looking for them all the afternoon, but they haven’t turned up yet.

20. They have been staying at the same hotel every year for five years.

21. Where have you been? Somebody has been ringing for you for the last five minutes.

22. Jack has gone to Scotland for a holiday; I have never been there.

23. Why are your shoes so wet and dirty? What have you been doing?

24. John haven’t had a holiday since the year before last.

25. Where is your husband? –  He has gone to London.

26. Has your husband ever been to London before?

27. The children have been playing in the garden since they came home from school.

28. I have been sitting for my portrait for the last six months, but the artist hasn’t finished it yet.

29. I haven’t had a good night sleep since last week.

30. Are you going to the shop? – No, I’ve already been to the shop.

Тренировочные упражнения. Present Perfect Continuous Tense. Продвинутый уровень. Advanced. Часть первая.

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Переведите следующие предложения на английский язык, обращая внимание на настоящее совершенное длительное время Present Perfect Continuous Tense. Начинаем переводить самые простые предложения.

1. Сколько времени вы пытаетесь связаться со своими друзьями? – Уже почти неделю.

2. Мы везде ищем эти документы уже два часа но не можем их найти.

3. Мы очень устали. Мы работали в саду целый день.

4. С каких пор они обсуждают этот вопрос? – С раннего утра.

5. Весь город только и говорит о нем, с тех пор, как он уехал.

6. Сколько времени эти студенты занимаются английским языком?

7. Я просматриваю эти документы уже три часа.

8. С каких пор она преподает в этой школе английский язык?

9. Последнее время он слишком много о ней думает.

10. Почему у тебя мокрые ботинки? – Я долго гулял под дождем.

11. Со вчерашнего дня идет снег и на улице много снега.

12. Как долго вы живете в этом городе? – Двадцать лет.

13. Пожалуйста, входите. Мы давно вас ждем.

14. Мы ходим по городу уже шесть  часов и очень устали.

15. Сколько вы уже здесь находитесь? – Две недели.

16. Мама, что случилось? У тебя красные глаза. Ты плакала?

17. Те мальчики играют в футбол уже два часа.

18. Пожалуйста, не рассказывай никому, что я здесь работаю.

19. Ваш сын давно собирает марки? – С детства.

20 . Я наблюдаю за этим человеком с тех пор, как я здесь сижу.

21. Можно войти? – Конечно. Что ты делаешь наверху?

22. Как ваша дочь? – Она  в порядке. Я только что разговаривала с ней по телефону.

23. С какого времени вы здесь сидите? – С десяти часов.

24. Наконец-то вы пришли! Мария только что спрашивала о вас.

25. Входи, моя дорогая. Я целое утро пытаюсь тебя найти.

26. Ребенок плачет весь вечер.

27. Джон путешествует по Африке уже три месяца.

28. Том красит стены своей комнаты с девяти часов.

29. Вы давно ищете работу?

30. Мой отец курит уже десять лет.

Я переведу предложения на английский язык, чтобы вы могли себя проверить.

1. How long have you been trying in touch with your friends? – Nearly a week already.

2. We have been looking for these documents everywhere for two hours already and can’t find them.

3. We are very tired. We’ve been working in the garden all day.

4. Since when have they discussing the matter? – Since early morning.

5. The whole town has been talking about him since he left.

6. How long have these students been working at their English?

7. I have been looking through these documents for three hours already.

8. Since when has  she been teaching English in this school?

9. He has been thinking about her too much lately.

10. Why are your shoes wet? – I’ve been going fora walk in the rain long.

11. It has been snowing since yesterday and there are a lot of snow outside. .

12. How long have you been living in this town? – Twenty years.

13. Come in, please. We have been waiting for you long.

14. We have been walking around in the city for six hours already and are very tired.

15. How long have you been staying here? – Two weeks.

16. What is the matter, mother? Your eyes are red. Have you been crying?

17. Those boys have been playing football for two hours already.

18. Please don’t tell anybody what I have been working here.

19. Has your son collecting stamps long? – Since his childhood.

20. I have been watching at that man since I have been sitting here.

21. May I come in?- Certainly. What have you been doing upstairs?

22. How is your daughter? – Oh, she is very well. I have just been telephoning to her.

23. Since when have you been sitting here? – Since ten o’clock.

24. Oh, you have come at last. Mary has just been asking for you.

25. Come  in, my dear. I have been trying to find you all morning.

26. The baby has been crying all evening.

27. John has been travelling around Africa for three months already.

28. Tom has been painting the walls of his room since nine o’clock.

29. Have you looking for a job long?

30.  My father has been smoking for ten years already.

Тренировочные упражнения. Present Perfect Continuous Tense. Средний уровень. Intermediate. Часть вторая.

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Exercise 1. Дополните следующие предложения предлогами “since” или “for”, используя словосочетания, данные в скобках.

1. We have been here. ( early morning/two hours)

2. I haven’t been riding a bicycle. ( longer than I can remember/my childhood)

3. I have known him. ( five years /2012)

4. Ann hasn’t been speaking to me. ( more than a year/ last year)

5. My husband has been asking me the same question. ( the beginning of the week/last fortnight)

6. It hasn’t been raining here. ( more than a month/February)

7. I haven’t seen you. ( Christmas /a week).

8. My neighbours have been living in this street . ( 1995/ the last ten years/ a long time)

9. I haven’t been speaking Spanish. ( ten years/2007)

10. He hasn’t had time to do it. ( five days/last Friday)

11. She has been wearing the same old dress. ( at least a month/the beginning of the month)

12. We haven’t been buying any new clothes. ( a year/ ages/then)

13. You haven’t been sending  me any money. (last month/fifteen days)

14. Nobody has been writing to me. ( many weeks/my birthday)

15. He hasn’t been eating any meat. ( over a year/He was a boy)

16. The dog has been lying on the floor. ( three hours/morning)

17. He hasn’t had a car. ( five years/ 2012)

18. This question has been under consideration. ( Monday/three days)

19. We has been waiting for you.( two hours/ 11 o’clock)

20. He has been ill.  ( last week/five days)

Я напишу правильные ответы, чтобы вы могли себя проверить.

1. We have been here since early morning.

We have been here for two hours.

2. I haven’t been riding a bicycle for longer than I can remember.

I haven’t been riding a bicycle since my childhood.

3. I have known him for five years.

I have known him since 2012.

4. Ann hasn’t been speaking to me for more than a year.

Ann hasn’t been speaking to me since last year.

5. My husband has been asking me the same question since the beginning of the week.

My husband has been asking me the same question for last fortnight.

6. It hasn’t been raining here for more than a month.

It hasn’t been raining here since February.

7. I haven’t seen you since Christmas.

I haven’t seen you for a week.

8. My neighbours have been living in this street since 1995.

My neighbours have been living in this street for the last ten years.

My neighbours have been living in this street for a long time.

9. I haven’t been speaking Spanish for ten years.

I haven’t been speaking Spanish since 2007.

10. He hasn’t had time to do it since for five days.

He hasn’t had time to do it since last Friday.

11. She has been wearing the same old dress for at least a month.

She has been wearing the same old dress since the beginning of the month.

12. We haven’t been buying any new clothes for a year.

We haven’t been buying any new clothes for ages.

We haven’t been buying any new clothes since then.

13. You haven’t been sending me any money since last month.

You haven’t been sending me any money for fifteen days.

14. Nobody has been writing to me for many weeks.

Nobody has been writing to me since my birthday.

15. He hasn’t been eating any meat for over a year.

He hasn’t been eating any meat since he was a boy.

16. The dog has been lying on the floor for three hours.

The dog has been lying on the floor since morning.

17. He hasn’t had a car for five years.

He hasn’t had a car since 2012.

18. This question has been under consideration since Monday.

This question has been under consideration for three days.

19. We have been waiting for you for two hours.

We have been waiting for you since 11 o’clock.

20. He has been ill since last week.

He has been ill for five days.

Exercise 2. Заполните пропуски предлогами “since” или “for”.

1. John hasn’t been here … three weeks.

2. That church has been standing here  … centuries.

3. What have you been doing … yesterday?

4. My friend has been selling computers … five years already .

5. He has been sleeping … ten hours.

6. He has been sleeping … ten o’clock this morning.

7. I haven’t been wearing this dress … two years.

8. She has been teaching in this school … 2001.

9. My friend has been ill … a long time.

10. We’ve been studying English … three months.

11. I’ve been reading this book … the beginning of the week.

12. It has been snowing … yesterday morning.

13. I have been busy … early morning.

14. He hasn’t been doing any work … a week already.

15. She has been speaking on the telephone … an hour already.

16. Mother has been cooking dinner … ten o’clock.

17. I haven’t seen you … a long time.

18. We have known him … ages.

19. My granny has been resting in the garden … noon.

20 They have been living in the country … ten years.

Я напишу правильные ответы, чтобы вы могли себя проверить.

1. John hasn’t been here for three weeks.

2. That church has been standing here for centures.

3. What have you been doing since yesterday?

4. My friend has been selling computers for five years already.

5. He has been sleeping for ten years.

6. He has been sleeping since ten o’clock this morning.

7. I haven’t been wearing this dress for two years.

8. She has been teaching in this school since 2001.

9. My friend has been ill for a long time.

10. We’ve been studying English for three months.

11. I’ve been reading this book since the beginning of the week.

12. It has been raining since yesterday morning.

13. I have been busy since early morning.

14. He hasn’t been doing any work for a week already.

15. She has been speaking on the telephone for an hour already.

16. Mother has been cooking dinner since ten o’clock.

17. I haven’t seen you for a long time.

18. We have known him for ages.

19. My granny has been resting in the garden since noon.

20. They have been living in the country for ten years.

Тренировочные упражнения. Present Perfect Continuous Tense. Средний уровень. Intermediate. Часть первая.

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В следующих предложениях надо раскрыть скобки и поставить глаголы в  нужное время, только уже надо ориентироваться во всех оттенках настоящего времени: Present Indefinite Tense, Present Continuous Tense, Present Perfect Tense, Present perfect Continuous Tense.

1. My brother ( to collect) stamps ever since he left school. Now he ( to collect) so many that he doesn’t know where to put them.

2. What you ( to write)? – I ( to write ) my composition. I ( to write) it all morning and I ( not to finish) it yet. – I (to finish) mine.

3. This short-sighted man ( to lose) his spectacles. We ( to look) for them everywhere but we can’t find them.

4. That boy already ( to stand) at the bus stop for the last half an hour. Shall I tell him that the last bus already (to go)?

5. What you ( to do), Tom? – I ( to read). But it ( to be) late. What you ( to read) all this time?

6. You ever ( to act) as interpreter? – Yes, that is what I ( to do) for the last five months.

7. Something ( to happen) to John. I ( to wait) for him long and he ( not to come) yet.

8. Where (to be) John? – He ( to work) in the garden. He must be too tired. He ( to work) there all day.

9. They (make) up their quarrel? – I don’t know. I only know that they ( not to be) on speaking terms since September.

10. There are a lot of things I ( to do) for a long time, and I ( not to do) them yet.

11. Who you ( to wait) for? – I ( to wait) for Ann. I ( to wait) for her since 10 o’clock.

12. Our pilot (to ask) for permission to take off for ten minutes already, but he ( to get) no answer yet.

13. There is the car. My husband ( to come) back. I must go and wash my eyes. I don’t want him to see I ( to cry).

14. These people ( to stand ) here for the last twenty minutes. What they ( to talk) about all this time?

15. The workers ( to work) very hard these two weeks, they ( to be busy) with the interior decoration of the house.

16. You are old enough to begin to learn. – I ( to learn) all my life.

17. What you ( to think) of? – I (to think) of our journey. – You ( to think) of it long?

18. You (to be) of great help  to us since you ( to be ) with us.

19. What you ( to do) with my bag? I ( to look) for it for an hour and can’t find it. – I think, Ann ( to go) off with it.

20. The actors ( to rehearse) since early morning; now they ( to go over) the first scene as they ( not to be) satisfied with their acting.

21. The children ( to play) chess in the sitting-room. They ( to play) since I ( to sit) here.

22. Here you (to be) at last! I ( to wait) for  you for twenty minutes!

23. At last you ( to open) the door! It seems to me, I ( to ring) for an hour at least!

24. The typist ( to miss) several words as she ( talk) all the time.

25. They ( to discuss) this question ever since I ( to be) here and they ( not to come) to any definite conclusion.

Я раскрою скобки и поставлю глаголы в нужное время, чтобы вы могли себя проверить.

1. My brother has been collecting stamps since he left school. Now he has collected so many that he doesn’t know where to put them.

2. What are you writing? – I am writing my composition. I have been writing it all morning and I haven’t finished it yet. – I have finished mine.

3. This short-sighted man has lost his spectacles. We have been looking for them everywhere but we can’t find them.

4. That boy has already been standing at the bus stop for the last half an hour. Shall I tell him that the last bus has already gone?

5. What are you doing, Tom? – I am reading. But it is late. What have you been reading all this time?

6. Have ever acted as interpreter? – Yes, that is what I have been doing for the last five months.

7. Something has happened to John. I have been waiting for him long and he hasn’t come yet.

8. Where is John? He is working in the garden. He must be too tired. He has been working there all day.

9. Have they made up ther quarrel? – I don’t know. I only know that they haven’t been on speaking terms since September.

10. There are a lot of things I have been doing for a long time, and I haven’t done them yet.

11. Who are you waiting for? – I am waiting for Ann. I have been waiting for her since 10 o’clock.

12. Our pilot has been asking for permission for ten minutes already, but he has got no answer yet.

13. There is the car. My husband has come back. I must go and wash my eyes . I don’t want him to see I have been crying.

14. These people have been standing here for the last twenty minutes. What are they  talking about all this time?

15. The workers have been working hard these two weeks, they have been busy with interior of the house.

16. You are old to begin to learn. – I have been learning all  my life.

17. What are thinking of? – I am thinking of our journey. – Have you been thinking of it long?

18. You have been of great help to us since you have been with us.

19. What have you done with my bag? – I have been looking for it for an hour and can’t find  it. – I think, Ann has gone off with it.

20. The actors have been rehearsing since early morning; now they are going over the first scene as they haven’t been satisfied with their acting.

21. The children are playing chess in the sitting room. They have been playing since I have been sitting here.

22. Here you are at last! I have been waiting for you for twenty minutes .

23. At last you have opened the door! It seemsto me, I have been ringing for an hour at least!

24. The typist has missed several words as she has been talking all the time.

25. They have been discussing this question since I have been here and they haven’t come to any definite conclusion.

Тренировочные упражнения. Present Perfect Continuous Tense. Начальный уровень. Elementary. Часть вторая.

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Отрабатываем настоящее совершенное длительное время в упражнениях и начинаем с самых простых упражнений.

Exercise 1. Поставьте следующие предложения в отрицательную и вопросительную форму.

1. We have been waiting for you since yesterday.

2. The pupils have been learning English for three years.

3. The children have been playing football since early morning.

4. You have been speaking over the telephone for half an hour already.

5. We are tired. We have been working in the garden all day.

6. It has been raining since yesterday.

7. He has been wearing the same suit for years.

8. You have been translating this article since 8 o’clock.

9. The engineers have been discussing this matter for two hours already.

10. The baby has been crying all morning.

11. The boys have been running about in the park for three hours.

12. My friend has been serving in the army since last year.

13. This film has been running for a month.

14. We have been living here since 2005.

15. There are a lot of snow outside. It has been snowing.

16. He has been sleeping for over ten hours already.

17. Ann has been working here since 5 September.

18. Mother has been doing the washing for an hour and a half already.

19. He has been selling computers since last year.

20. My granny has been feeling very well lately.

21. George has been smoking for a long time.

22. You have been argueing with your co-workers for over an hour.

23. They have been considering the question all morning.

24. Tom is red because he has been sunbathing.

25. She has been having his English for half an hour already.

26. My aunt has been travelling around Europe since the beginning of the year.

26. The students have been listening to their teacher for over an hour already.

27. My grandfather has been working in the garden all day.

28. You have been laughing at this joke for ten minutes already.

29. This pictures has been hanging here for a long time.

30. His hands are dirty. He had been repairing the car.

Exercise 2. Раскройте скобки и поставьте глаголы в  Present Perfect Tense или вPresent Continuous Tense.

1. I (not to see) you for a long time.

2. He ( to write) a novel for the last two years, but he ( not to finish) it yet.

3. You should tell me what you ( to do) since I last saw you.

4. She ( to work) so hard this week that she ( not to have) time to go to the hairdresser’s.

5. He ( not to be ) here since Christmas; I wonder where he ( to live) since then.

6. You ( to be asleep) all the morning? I ( to ring) the bell for the last twenty minutes.

7. I ( to try) to learn English for years, but I (not to succeed) yet.

8. Mary ( to rest) in the garden all day because she ( to be) ill.

9. We ( to live) here for the last six months, and just ( to decide) to move.

10. I ( no to find) a wife, though I ( to look for) one ever since I was twenty.

11. Since you gave me your number I (to phone) you many times and ( not to find) you at home.

12. You already ( to drink) three cups of tea since I ( to sit) here.

13. He ( not to have) a holiday for nine years because he (to be) very busy.

14. That book ( to lie) on the table for weeks. You ( not to read) it yet?

15. I  (to wait) here for her since seven o’clock and she ( not to come) yet.

Я раскрою скобки и поставлю глаголы в нужное время, чтобы вы могли себя проверить.

1. I haven’t seen you for a long time.

2. He has been writing a novel the last two years, but he hasn’t finished it yet.

3. You should tell me what you have been doing since I last saw you.

4. She has been working so hard this week that she hasn’t had time to go the hairdresser’s.

5. He hasn’ t been here since Christmas; I wonder where he has been living since then.

6. Have you been asleep all the morning?  I have been ringing the bell for the last twenty minutes.

7. I have been trying to learn English for years, but I haven’t succeeded yet.

8. Mary has been resting in the garden all day because she has been ill.

9. We have been living here for the last six months, and have just decided to move.

10. I haven’ t found a wife, though I have been looking for one ever since I was twenty.

11. Since you gave me your number I have been phoning you many times and haven’t found you at home.

12. You have already been drinking three cups of tea since I have been sitting here.

13. He hasn’t been having a holiday for nine years because he has been very busy.

14. That book has been lying on the table for weeks. Have you read it yet?

15. I have been waiting for her since seven o’clock and she hasn’ t come yet.

Тренировочные упражнения. Present Perfect Continuous Tense. Начальный уровень. Elementary. Часть первая.

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Начинаем привыкать к новой, только что освоенной глагольной форме: Present Perfect Continuous Tense , поэтому начинаем с самых простых упражнений. Раскройте скобки и поставьте глагол в нужном времени. Переведите предложения.

1. We ( to look for) the key everywhere since morning, but can’t find it.

2. We are very tired because we’ve been walking round the town all day.

3. The children (to do) their homework for half an hour.

4. I (to live) here since 1995.

5. This text is very difficult for me. I (to translate) it for two hours, but it isn’t  quite finished yet.

6. The cat ( to sit) in front of the fire since noon.

7. He already (to wait) for a letter from his sister for a month, but hasn’t received it yet.

8. I (to look) at this picture for five minutes, but I can’t find you in it.

9. It ( to snow) since yesterday.

10. I (to try) to get in touch with them for a long time , but now I’ve given it up as hopeless.

11. Look! The light ( to burn) all night.

12. Wake up! You already (to sleep) for ten hours.

13. I know you (to talk) about grammar for the last half an hour, but I am afraid I (not to listen).

14. He ( stand) here in the rain for half an hour.

15. This pupil ( to learn) English for three years, but he can’t even read a newspaper yet.

16. I am cold because I ( to swim) for an hour.

17. Nobody has come to see us since we ( to live) in our new house.

18. What you ( to do) while I have been out? We ( to sit) here writing our homework, but it’s not quite finished yet.

19. My uncle ( to work) at the factory for twenty years.

20. They are tired because they ( to work) in the garden since early morning.

21. The weather is fine today. The sun ( to shine) ever since we got up.

22. My sister ( to speak) over the telephone long enough. It is time for her to stop talking.

23. Dinner isn’t quite ready yet, although I ( to cook) all the morning.

24. Ann should stop working so much; she has got a headache because she ( to read) too long.

25. This student ( to work) hard at his English all the time and has already made great progress.

Я раскрою скобки и поставлю глаголы в нужное время, а также переведу все предложения, чтобы вы могли себя проверить.

1. We have been looking for the key everywhere since morning, but can’t find it. = Мы с утра везде ищем ключ, но не можем его найти.

2. We are very tired because we’ve been walking round the town all day. = Мы очень устали, потому что весь день ходили по городу.

3. The children have been doing their homework for half an hour. = Дети уже полчаса делают уроки.

4. I’ve been living here since 1995. = Я живу здесь с 1995 года.

5. This text is very difficult for me. I’ve been translating it for two hours, but it isn’t quite finished yet. = Этот текст для меня очень трудный. Я перевожу его уже два часа, но он еще не совсем закончен.

6. The cat has been sitting in front of the fire since noon. = Кот сидит перед огнем с полудня.

7. He has already been waiting for a letter from his sister for a month, but hasn’t received it yet. = Он уже целый месяц ждет письмо от своей сестры, но еще его не получил.

8. I’ve been looking at the picture for five minutes, but I can’t find you in it. = Я разглядываю фотографию уже пять минут, но не могу тебя на ней найти.

9. It has been snowing since yesterday. = Со вчерашнего дня идет снег.

10. I’ve been trying to get in touch with them for a long time, but now I’ve given it up as hopeless. = У уже давно пытаюсь связаться с ними, но сейчас я уже оставил это безнадежное дело.

11. Look! The light has been burning all night. = Смотри! Всю ночь горит свет.

12. Wake up! You have already sleeping for ten hours. = Просыпайся! Ты спишь уже десять часов.

13. I know you have been talking about grammar for the last half an hour, but I am afraid I haven’t been listening. = Знаю, что ты говоришь о грамматике последние полчаса, но боюсь, я тебя не слушаю.

14. He has been standing here in the rain for half an hour. = ОН уже полчаса стоит здесь под дождем.

15. This pupil has been learning English for three years, but he can’t even read a newspaper yet. = Этот ученик учит английский язык уже три года, но не может даже прочитать газету.

16. I am cold because I have been swimming for an hour. = Я замерз потому что я уже целый час плаваю.

17. Nobody has come to see us since we have been living in our new house. = С тех пор как мы живем в нашем новом доме, еще никто нас не навестил.

18. What have you been doing while I have been out? – We have been sitting here writing our homework , but it isn’t quite finished yet. = Чем вы тут занимаетесь, пока меня не было? – Мы здесь сидим и пишем домашнее задание, но оно еще не закончено.

19. My uncle has been working at the factory for twenty years. = Мой дядя работает на заводе двадцать лет.

20. They are tired because they have been working in the garden since early morning. = Они устали, так как они с раннего утра работают в саду.

21. The weather is fine today. The sun has been shining ever since we got up. = сегодня прекрасная погода. С того момента, как мы встали  светит солнце.

22. My sister has been speaking over the telephone long enough. It is time for her to stop talking.  = Моя сестра уже слишком долго говорит по телефону. Пора ей перестать болтать.

23. Dinner isn’t quite ready yet, although I have been cooking all morning. = Обед еще не готов, хотя я стряпаю все утро.

24. Ann should stop working so much; she has got a headache because she has been reading too long. = Анне надо перестать так много работать; у нее уже болит голова, потому что она очень много читает.

25. This student has been working at his English all the time and has already made great progress. = Этот студент все время занимается английским и уже добился больших успехов.

Тренировочные упражнения. Past PerfectTense. Продвинутый уровень. Advanced. Часть вторая.

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Только прямые переводы заставят прочувствовать все четыре оттенка настоящего, прошедшего и будущего времен. Поэтому переводить надо много и долго и “допереводиться” до того момента, пока не наступит полная ясность. Я пишу упражнения, распределенные по трем уровням ( начальном, среднем и продвинутом), чтобы показать в каком направлении двигаться, но упражнений и, собственно, прямых переводов должно быть намного больше. Если есть какие-либо затруднения в переводе, то под рукой всегда есть учебник. Критерий знания – это отсутствие сомнений и полное понимание. Ведь в реальной жизни и в реальной речи не будет никаких подсказок и будете сам себе режиссер и сами будете определяете времена и правила. Но чтобы самому руководить процессом, надо до него, так сказать, дослужиться.

В этом упражнении три предложения написаны в прошедшем времени. Надо только определиться в каком именно времени (Past Indefinite, Past Continuous , Past perfect) их надо перевести на английский язык. Предложения очень простые, это как бы небольшая разминка.

1. Я переводила этот текст весь вечер вчера.

Я уже перевела этот текст к вечеру.

Вчера я учила новые слова и переводила текст.

2. Студенты сдавали экзамены с понедельника по пятницу.

Студенты сдали экзамены к пятнице.

На прошлой неделе студенты сдали экзамены.

3. Он занимался английским языком всю прошлую зиму.

В прошлом году он занимался английским языком и ходил на занятия.

К тому времени он уже упорно занимался английским языком.

4. Они все утро гуляли в лесу и собирали грибы.

К полудню они пришли домой.

Утром они пошли в лес.

5. К тому времени дети уже пообедали.

Они обедали с часу до двух.

Вчера они обедали в три часа.

6. Он извинялся передо мной вчера все утро.

Вчера вечером он подошел ко мне и извинился.

Он уже извинился перед своей бабушкой к тому времени.

7. Они обсуждали этот вопрос всю вторую половину дня.

Они уже обсудили этот вопрос к трем часам дня.

Они решили обсудить этот вопрос в три часа.

8. Учитель вчера на уроке объяснил новое правило.

Учитель объяснял правило весь урок.

К концу урока учитель уже объяснил новое правило.

9. Она вчера весь вечер писала сочинение.

Анна открыла словарь и переписала новые слова.

Она написала статью к двум часам.

10. Весь  день Анна красила стены в комнате.

К вечеру Анна выкрасила стены комнаты.

Вчера Анна красила стены комнаты.

Я переведу все предложения на английский язык, чтобы вы могли себя проверить.

1. I was translating this text all evening yesterday.

I have translated this text by the evening.

Yesterday I learnt new words and translated the text.

2. The students were taking their exams from Monday till Friday.

The students have passed their exams by Friday.

Last week the students passed their exams.

3. He was having his English all last winter.

Last year he had his English and went to the lessons.

By that time he had already had his Engluish hard.

4. They were walking in the forest and picking mushrooms all this morning.

They had come home by noon.

This morning they went to the forest.

5. The children had already had dinner by that time.

They were having dinner from one till two.

Yesterday they had dinner at three o’clock.

6. He was apologizing to me all morning yesterday.

Last night he came up  and apologized to me.

He had apologized to his grandmother by that time.

7. They were discussing this question all afternoon.

They had discussed this question by 3 o’clock.

They decided to discuss this question at 3 o’clock.

8. The teacher explained a new rule at the lesson.

The teacher were explaning a new rule the whole lesson.

By the end of the lesson the teacher had already explained a new rule.

9. She was writing a composition all evening yesterday.

She opened the dictionary and copied out new words.

She had written an article by two’’o’clock.

10. Ann was painting the walls of the room all day long.

Ann had painted the walls of the room by the evening.

Yesterday Ann painted the walls of the room.

Тренировочные упражнения. Past Perfect Tense. Продвинутый уровень. Advanced. Часть первая.

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Продвинутый уровень тренировочных упражнений всегда предполагает прямые переводы, то есть переводы на английский язык. Начинать надо с простых предложений, постепенно их усложняя и приближаясь к реальной речи.

Итак, переведите следующие предложения на английский язык, обращая внимание на употребление Past Perfect Tense. В конце упражнения я переведу все предложения,чтобы вы могли себя проверить.

1. К тому времени путешественники уже прошли около десяти миль и начали чувствовать усталость.

2. Том и Джон посмотрели друг на друга, пытаясь разобраться, что случилось.

3. К трем часам они уже закончили все приготовления ко дню рождения их дочери.

4. Вчера вечером я закончил переводить статью, которую я начал прежде переводить.

5. Все ученики были в классе, а учительница еще не пришла.

6. Я не успел перевести этот текст к концу рабочего дня и мне пришлось остаться в офисе после работы.

7. Моих родителей не было дома сегодня утром. К тому времени они уже уехали за город.

8. Хотя Том вернулся домой в полночь, его жена и дети еще не спали.

9. Вчера перед собранием мы обсудили этот вопрос.

10. Все закончили свою работу к назначенному времени.

11. Мы добрались домой перед тем, как пошел дождь.

12. К полудню доктор уже осмотрел десять пациентов.

13. К концу недели мы уже все приготовили.

14. Наконец я узнал, что случилось с моим другом.

15. Фильм уже начался , когда мы вошли в кинотеатр.

16.  Я был уверен, что я никогда не видел прежде этого человека.

17. Он очень сожалел, что обидел своего друга.

18. Пруд стал намного глубже после того как прошли сильные дожди.

19. Я поблагодарил своего учителя за то, что он мне помог с английским языком.

20. Вчера мы пошли прогуляться в лес и внезапно поняли, что заблудились.

21. Перед соревнованием спортсмены много тренировались.

22. Так как мы не купили билеты заранее, нам пришлось идти в кинотеатр пораньше, перед началом фильма.

23. Когда футболисты выиграли первый матч с разрывом в одно очко, он поняли, что им надо больше тренироваться, чтобы выиграть чемпионат.

24. Анна говорила со своим братом теми же словами, какими она до этого говорила со своей сестрой.

25. Она узнала, что человек, который к ней приходил, когда ее не было дома, был ее брат.

26. К тому времени, когда я пришел, часовщик еще не отремонтировал мои часы.

27. До захода солнца дети уже вернулись домой.

28. Они уже закончили упаковывать вещи, когда приехало такси.

29. Он не мог не думать о том, что он раньше видел где-то это лицо.

30. Я удивился, когда услышал, что Мария сдала экзамен в возрасте четырнадцати лет.

Я переведу предложения на английский язык, чтобы вы могли себя проверить.

1. By that time the travellers had already walked about ten miles and began to feel tired.

2. Tom and John looked at each other , trying to make out what had happpened.

3. The had completed all the preparations for their daughters birthday by three o’clock.

4. Last night I finished to translate the article which I had begun before.

5. All the pupils were in the classroom, but the teacher had not come yet.

6. I hadn’t had enough time to translate the article by the end of my working day and I had to stay at office after work.

7. My parents were not at home this morning. By that time they had already gone to the country.

8. Though Tom came back home at midnight his wife and children hadn’t slept yet.

9. Yesterday we had discussed this question before the meeting.

10. Everybody had finished his work by the appointed time.

11. We had got home before it began to rain.

12. The doctor had already examined ten patients by twelve o’clock.

13. By the end of the week we had prepared everything.

14. At last I learned what had happened to my friend.

15. When we entered the cinema the film had already begun.

16. I was sure that I had never seen that man before.

17. He was awfully sorry tat he had hurt a friend of his.

18. The pond bcame much more deeper after it had rained heavily.

19. I thanked my teacher for what he had helped me with my English.

20. Yesterday we went for a walk in the forest and suddenly found that we had lost our way.

21. The sportsmen had trained much before the competition.

22. As we had not bought tickets in advance, we had to go to the cinema before the film started.

23. When the football players had won the first match by only one point, they realized that they must train harder to win championship.

24. Ann spoke to her brother in almost the same words as she had spoken to her sister.

25. She found that the man who had  come to see her when she wasn’t at home was her brother.

26. The watchmaker hadn’t repaired my watch by the time I came.

27. The children returned home before the sunset.

28. When the taxi arrived, they had already finished packing.

29. He couldn’t help thinking that he had seen that face somewhere before.

30. I was surpised to hear that Mary had passed the examination at the age of fourteen.

Тренировочные упражнения. Past Perfect Tense. Средний уровень. Intermediate. Часть вторая.

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Давайте потренируемся раскрывать скобки и определять нужное прошедшее время Past Pefect Tense и Past Indefinite Tense в сложных предложениях с коррелятивными парами наречий ( hardly… when; scarcely … when; no sooner … than), которые зачастую имеют обратный порядок слов. Напишите два варианта предложений- с прямым и обратным порядком слов.

1. He scarcely (to finish ) his work when somebody ( to knock) at the door.

2. I hardly ( to be) there five minutes when Mary ( to come) with the coffee.

3. Five o’clock hardly (to strike) on the morning of the nineteenth of January when Anna ( to bring) a candle into my little room and ( to find) me already up and nearly dressed.

4. They scarcely (to move) into the new house when their friends ( to come) in.

5. She  hardly (to slip) the letter into her pocket when her husband ( to enter) the room.

6. I no sooner ( to close) my eyes when the telephone ( to ring).

7. I scarcely ( to read) more than the first three chapters when I ( to hear) a conversation going on in the next room.

8. I hardly (to arrive) when I ( to have) a new problem to cope with.

9. I no sooner ( to discover) that the wolves could only run on the ice in a straight line, than I ( to decide) to turn aside whenever they came too near.

10. The wolves hardly ( to hear) the barking of my dogs , when they ( to stop) and after a few minutes ( to turn) and (to flee).

11. We scarcely (to start) lunch when the doorbell ( to ring).

12. I hardly ( to close) the door when somebody ( to start) knocking on it.

13. Ann no sooner ( to come) back home than she ( to realize) her mistake.

14. She no sooner ( to open) the drawer than she ( to find) the letter which she ( to think) she ( to lose) long before.

15. The game scarcely ( to begin) when it ( to start) raining.

16. He hardly ( to touch) the pillow when he ( to fall) asleep.

17. We scarcely ( to make) ourselves comfortable in the parlour when an old man (to come) in smoking a long pipe; we naturally ( to began) to chat.

18. He no sooner ( to leave) the room than another man ( to come) in.

19. He hardly ( to arrive) when the accident ( to take place).

20. We scarcely (to close) the door when a snowstorm ( to begin).

Я раскрою скобки и поставлю глаголы в нужное время Past Perfect Tense и Past Indefinite Tense чтобы вы могли себя проверить. 

1. He had scarcely finished his work when somebody knocked at the door. (Прямой порядок слов)

Scarcely had he finished his work when somebody knocked at the door. Обратный порядок слов. Инверсия.

Перевод: Едва он закончил работу, как кто-то постучал в дверь. или: Не успел он закончить работу, как кто-то постучал в дверь.

2. I had hardly been there five minutes when Mary came with the coffee. (Прямой порядок слов)

Hardly had I been there five minutes when Mary came with the coffee. (Обратный порядок слов. Инверсия)

Перевод: Я пробыл там не больше пяти минут как Мария принесла кофе.

3. Five o’clock had hardly struck on the morning of the nineteenth of January when Ann brought a candle into my little room and found me already up and nearly dressed. (Прямой порядок слов)

Hardly had five o’ clock struck on the morning of the nineteenth of January when Ann brought a candle into my littke room and found me already up and nearly dressed. (Обратный порядок слов. Инверсия)

Перевод: Едва только часы пробили пять часов утром девятнадцатого января, как Анна пришла со свечой в мою маленькую комнату и застала меня уже на ногах и почти одетым.

4. They had scarcely moved into the new house when their friends came in. ( Прямой порядок)

Scarcely had they moved into the new house when their friends came in. ( Обратный порядок. Инверсия)

Перевод: Едва они переехали в новый дом, как пришли их друзья. или: Не успели они переехать в новый дом, как пришли их друзья.

5. She had hardly slipped the letter into her pocket when her husband entered the room. ( Прямой порядок)

Hardly had she slipped the letter into her pocket when her husband entered the room. ( Обратный порядок. Инверсия)

Перевод: Не успела она сунуть письмо в карман, как в комнату вошел ее муж.

6. I had no sooner closed my eyes when the telephone rang. (Прямой порядок)

No sooner had I closed my eyes when the telephone rang. ( Обратный порядок. Инверсия)

Перевод: Едва я закрыл глаза, как зазвонил телефон.

7. I had scarcely read more than the first three chapters when I heard a conversation going on in the next room. ( Прямой порядок)

Scarcely had I read more than the first three chapters when I heard a conversation going on in the next room. ( Обратный порядок. Инверсия)

Перевод: Не успел я прочитать более, чем первые три главы, как я услышал разговор, доносящийся из соседней комнаты.

8. I had hardly arrived when I had a new problem to cope with. (Прямой порядок)

Hardly had I arrived when I had a new problem to cope with. (Обратный порядок. Инвесия)

Перевод: Едва я приехал, как на меня навалилась еще одна проблема, которую надо было решить.

9. I had no sooner discovered that the wolves could only run on the ice in a straight line, than I decided to turn aside whenever they came too near. ( Прямой порядок)

No sooner had I discovered that the wolves could only run on the ice in a straight line, than I decided to turn aside whenever they came too near. (Обратный порядок. Инверсия)

Перевод: Едва я обнаружил, что волки на льду могли бежать  прямо, как я тут же решил свернуть в сторону, когда они приблизятся слишком близко.

10. The wolves had hardly heard the barking of my dogs, when stopped and after a few minutes turned and fled. (Прямой порядок)

Hardly had the wolves heard the barking of my dogs , when they stopped and after a few minutes turned and fled. (Обратный порядок. Инверсия)

Перевод: Едва волки услышали лай моих собак, как они остановились и спустя несколько минут повернулись и убежали.

11. We had scarcely started lunch when the doorbell rang. ( Прямой порядок)

Scarcely had we started lunch when the doorbell rang. (Обратный порядок. Инверсия)

Перевод: Едва мы приступили к обеду, как в дверь позвонили.

12. I had hardly closed the door when somebody started knocking on it. (Прямой порядок)

Hardly had I closed the door when somebody started knocking on it. (Обратный порядок. Инверсия)

Перевод: Только я закрыл дверь, как кто-то начал в нее стучать.

13. Ann had no sooner come back home than she realised her mistake. (Прямой порядок)

No sooner had Ann come back home than she realized her mistake. (Обратный порядок. Инверсия)

Перевод: Едва Анна вернулась домой, как она поняла свою ошибку.

14. She had no sooner opened the drawer than she found the letter which she thought she had lost before. (Прямой порядок)

No sooner had she opened the drawer than she found the letter which she thought she had lost before. (Обратный порядок. Инверсия)

Перевод: Едва она выдвинула ящик, как она обнаружила письмо, которое, как она думала, она давно потеряла.

15. The game had scarcely begun when it started raining. (Прямой порядок)

Scarcely had the game begun when it started raining. (Обратный порядок. Инверсия)

Перевод: Игра только началась, как пошел дождь. или: Не успела начаться игра, как пошел дождь.

16. He had hardly touched the pillow when he fell asleep. ( Прямой порядок)

Hardly had he touched the pillow when he fell asleep.( Обратный порядок. Инверсия)

Перевод: Едва он коснулся подушки, как тотчас же уснул.

17. We had scarcely made ourselves comfortable in the parlour when an old man came in smoking a long pipe; we naturally began to chat. (Прямой порядок)

Scarcely had we made ourselves comfortable in the parlour when an old man came in smoking a long pipe; we naturally began to chat. (Обратный порядок. Инверсия)

Перевод: Едва мы устроились поудобнее в гостиной, как пришел старик, который курил длинную трубку; естественно, между нами завязался разговор.

18. He had no sooner left the room than another man came in. (Прямой порядок)

No sooner had he left the room than another man came in. (Обратный порядок. Инверсия)

Перевод: Едва он вышел из комнаты, как вошел еще один человек.

19. He had hardly arrived when the accident took place. (Прямой порядок)

Hardly had he arrived when the accident took place. (Обратный порядок. Инверсия)

Перевод: Не успел он приехать домой, как произошла авария.

20. We had scarcely closed the door when a snowstorm began. ( Прямой порядок)

Scarcely had we closed the door when a snowstorm began. (Обратный порядок. Инверсия)

Перевод: Не успели мы закрыть дверь, как началась снежная буря. или: Едва мы закрыли дверь, как началась снежная буря.

Тренировочные упражнения. Past Perfect Tense. Средний уровень. Intermediate. Часть первая.

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Усложняем задание и тренируемся определять прошедшие времена, раскрывая скобки в английских сложных предложениях. Для правильного определения прошедшего времени,  надо понимать смысл высказывания, то есть, перевести предложение.  Правильный перевод всегда точно укажет на нужное время.

В следующих сложных предложениях раскройте скобки и поставьте глаголы в нужное прошедшее время Past Perfect Tense или Past Indefinite Tense.

1. We (to hear) that a fire ( to break out) in the neighbouring house.

2. Mary ( to be) on her way to meet her mother whom she ( not to see) for many years.

3. He ( to discover) to his horror that he ( to eat) half a maggot with his last piece of apple.

4. She (to tell) me about everything after her brother (to leave).

5. A friend of mine ( to write) a detective story called Murder in the brewery, although he never (to visit) a brewery in his life.

6. On leaving the hospital John ( to thank) the doctor who (to cure) him of his disease.

7. The little girl ( to ask) what ( to happen) to her ice-cream.

8. His smile ( to be) something she never ( to see) before.

9. Suddenly he ( to realize ) that he ( to see) that face somewhere before.

10. John just ( to finish) reading the letter when the telephone on his desk ( to ring).

11. The house ( to be) much smaller than he ( think) at first.

12. Just at the moment a boy and a girl ( to come) and (to sit) down where the old couple ( to be) before.

13. It (to be) the madman who ( to do) the killing.

14. I ( to keep) silence for a little while, thinking what he ( to tell) me.

15. The wetness of the deck ( tell) him that dew ( fall) in the night.

16. Within a week she ( to know) the fearful mistake she ( to make).

17. The boy ( to refuse) to admit that he ( to steal) the apples.

18. There ( to be) a curious expression on his face I never (see) before.

19. Ann ( to tell) her teacher that her mother ( to help) her with her homework the previous evening.

20. There ( to be) something vaguely familiar about her face but I couldn’t remember where I (to see) her before.

21. Yesterday I was at my friend’s birthday party. His new girl-friend (to be) a complete stranger to me because I ( not to see) her before.

22. He ( to step) forward and there (to appear) in his voice a quality of strenghth that his sister never ( to hear) before.

23. When the taxi ( to arrive), they already ( to finish) packing.

24. When John ( to leave) them Ann and her daughter ( to make) their way to the village.

25. When I was twenty, I ( to go) to London to study English. Before I (to learn) English for five years.

26. Two years ago I  to think) I (to know) English quite well because I (to study) it for five years.

27. The old man (to sit) there when his son (to go) thinking deeply.

28. After I ( to join) the library , I ( to get) the reader’s membership card.

29. When an hour ( to pass) she ( to hear) somebody’s feet coming down the street.

30. I ( to understand ) the true states of affairs before I ( to read ) your letter.

31. About twenty people already ( to arrive) when they ( to enter) the hall.

32. After John ( to read) all the books on the reading-list, he ( to decide) that he was prepared for the examination.

33. John (to be) still in the dining -room talking to Harry, who (to come) round again before breakfast.

34. I ( to come) to London in August. I never ( to be) to a big city before, so everything ( to interest) me very much.

35. The fellow ( to be) sharper than she (to think) , and better-looking than she ( to hope).

36. Last night he (to complete) the experiment which he ( to begin) some months before.

37. He ( to stare) at the boys, remembering the first time he ( to see) them. It (to be) almost three years ago.

38. In the morning all the passengers ( to feel) good after the night they ( to spend) in the comfortable sleeper.

39. They ( to be) friends for some ten years before I (to meet) them.

40. Everybody ( to be) already at the bus station, but the guide ( not to come) yet.

41. George ( to refuse) to give a definite answer before he ( to receive) a letter from his uncle.

42. Mary ( to read) in her husband’s eyes what he ( to want) to say before he ( to say) it.

43. Their friends ( to call) for them before they ( to be) ready.

44. We ( to have) to stay at the  station for the night because we ( to miss) the last train.

45. During my last visit to the picture gallery I ( to find) that I no longer ( to like) the pictures which ( to impress) me before.

Я раскрою скобки и поставлю глаголы в нужном прошедшем времени Past Perfect Tense или Past Indefinite Tense чтобы вы могли себя проверить.

1. We heard that a fire had broken out in the neighbouring house.

2. Mary was on her way to meet her mother whom she hadn’t seen for many years.

3. He discovered to his horror that he had eaten half a maggot with his last piece of apple.

4. She told me about everything after her brother left.

5. A friend of mine wrote a detective story called Murder in the brewery, although he had never visited a brewery in his life.

6. On leaving the hospital John thanked the doctor who had cured him of his disease.

7. The little girl asked what had happened to her ice-cream.

8. His smile was something she had never seen before.

9. Suddenly he realized that he had seen that face somewhere before.

10. John had just finished reading the letter when the telephone on his dest rang.

11. The house was much smaller than he had thought at first.

12. Just at the moment a boy and a girl came and sat down where the old couple had been before.

13. It was the mad man who had done the killing.

14. I kept silence for a little while , thinking what he had told me.

15. The wetness of the deck told him that dew had fallen in the night.

16. Within a week she knew the fearful mistake she had made.

17. The boy refused to admit that he had stolen the apples.

18. There was a curious expression on his face I had never seen before.

19. Ann told her teacher that her mother had helped her with her homework the previous day.

20. There was something vaguely familiar about her face but I couldn’t remember where I had seen her before.

21. Yesterday I was at my friend’s birthday party. His new girl-friend was a complete stranger to me because I had not seen her before.

22. He stepped forward and there appeared in his voice a quality of strength that his sister had never heard before.

23. When the taxi arrived , they had already finished packing.

24. When John had left them Ann and her daughter made their way to the village.

25. When I was twenty I went to London to study English. Before I had learnt English for five years.

26. Two years ago I thought I knew English quite well because I I had studied it for five years.

27. The old man sat there when his son had gone thinking deeply.

28. After I had joined the library , I got the readers’s membership card.

29. When an hour had passed she heard somebody’s feet coming down the street.

30. I had understood true states of affairs before I read your letter.

31. About twenty people had already arrived when they entered the hall.

32. After John had read all the books on the reading-list, he decided that he was prepared for the examination.

33. John was still in the dining-room talking to Harry, who had come round again before breakfast.

34. I came to London in August. I had never been to a big city before, so everything interested me very much.

35. The fellow was sharper than she had thought, and better-looking than she had hoped.

36. Last night he comleted the experiment which he had begun some months before.

37. He stared at the boys remembering the first time he had seen them. It was almost three years ago.

38. In the morning all the passengers felt good after the night they had spent in the comfortable sleeper.

39. They had been friends for some ten years before I met them.

40. Everybody was already at the bus station, but the guide hadn’t come yet.

41. George had refused to give a definite answer before he received a letter from his uncle.

42. Mary had read in her husband’s eyes what he wanted to say before he he said it.

43. Their friends had called for them before they were ready.

44. We had to stay at the station for the night because we had missed the last train.

45. During my last visit to the picture gallery I found that I no longer liked the pictures which had impressed me before.