Archive for 03.10.2017

Тренировочные упражнения. Past Perfect Tense. Средний уровень. Intermediate. Часть третья.

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Перед тем, как приступить к прямым переводам, то есть переводам с русского языка на английский, отрабатывая грамматику с прошедшими временами, надо основательно пропахать все варианты употребления, разбираясь с английскими предложениями.   Давайте потренируемся ставить вопросы к сложноподчиненным предложениям с придаточными времени. Напоминаю, что такие предложения состоят из главного предложения и придаточного предложения ( типа: “ХОЗЯИН-СЛУГА”), а в таких предложениях вопрос  ставится только к главному предложению, придаточное предложение всегда остается неизменным.

Exercise 1. Поставьте к каждому предложению общий вопрос и специальные вопросы.

1. John had washed his hands before he sat down to dinner.

2. After he had washed his hands John sat down to dinner.

3. When the taxi arrived, my parents had already finished packing.

4. When my parents had finished packing they began to have dinner.

5. Ann had studied English before she entered the University.

6. After Ann had learnt new words she started to translate the rext.

7. After mother had cooked dinner she began to do washing.

8. Mother had cooked the cake before the guests arrived.

9. They had already left when the trouble started.

10. After the trouble had started they left.

Я поставлю вопросы к каждому предложению, чтобы вы могли себя проверить.

1. Had John washed his hands before he sat down to dinner?

Who had washed his hands before sitting down to dinner?

What had Jonn done before he sat down to dinner?

What had John washed before he sat down to dinner?

2. Did John sit down to dinner after he had washed his hands?

Who sat down to dinner after washing his hands?

What did John do after he had washed his hands?

3. Had your parents already finished packing when the taxi arrived?

Who had finished packing when the taxi arrived?

What had your parents done when the taxi arrived?

4. Did your parents begin to have dinner after they had finished packing?

Who began to have dinner after finising packing?

What did your parents do after finishing packing?

5. Had Ann ever studied English before she entered the University?

Who had studied English before entering the University?

What language had Ann studied before she entered the University?

6. Did Ann start to translate the text after she had learnt new words?

Who started to translate the text after learning new words?

What did Ann begin to translate after she had learnt new words?

What did Ann do after she had learnt new words?

7. Did mother begin to do washing after she had cooked dinner?

Who began to do washing after cooking dinner?

What did mother begin to do after she had cooked dinner?

8. Had mother cooked the cake before the guests arrived?

Who had cooked the cake before the guests arrived?

What had mother cooked before the guests arrived?

9. Had they already left when the trouble started?

Who had left when the trouble started?

What had  they done when the trouble started?

10. Did they leave after the trouble had started?

Who left after the trouble had started?

What did they do after the trouble had started?

Exercise 2. Раскройте скобки и поставьте глаголы в Past Perfect Tense, Past Indefinite Tense или Past Continuous Tense.

1. After Dickens’s family ( to leave) Chatham and ( to settle) down in London, things ( to go) from bad to worse.

2. While Charles ( to work) at a blacking factory, he ( to have) to live in miserable lodging, for he ( to earn) only six shillings a week.

3. Dickens’s father ( to be) in prison for two years before he (to come) into some money.

4. Dickens just ( to publish) his Sketches by Boz when a firm of publishers ( to ask) him to write some short articles.

5. By 1836 Dickens already ( to become) popular with the English readers.

6. Dickens ( to study) shorthand before he could do some reporting in the house of Common.

7. After he ( to finish) school he ( to become) a clerk in a lawyer’s office.

8. Dickens already (to earn) world-wide fame when he (to begin) to write Oliver Twist.

9. Dickens ( to learn) to read at an early age and ( to read ) many books in his childhood.

10. After Dickens (to suffer) much he ( to become) a writer and ( to describe) his childhood in his famous novels.

Я раскрою скобки и поставлю нужное прошедшее время Past Perfect Tense, Past Continuous Tense, Past Indefinite Tense чтобы могли себя проверить.

1. After Dickens’s family had left Chatham and settled down in London, things went from bad to worse.

2. While Charles was working at a blacking factory, he had to live in a miserable lodging, for he earned only six shillings a week.

3. Dickens’s father had been in prison for two years before he came into some money.

4. Dickens had just published his Sketches by Boz when a firm of publishers asked him to write some short articles.

5. By 1836 Dickens had already become popular with the English readers.

6. Dickens had studied shorthand before he could do some reporting in the house of Common.

7. After he had finished school he become a clerk in a lawyer’s office.

8. Dickens had already earned world-wide fame when he began to write Oliver Twist.

9. Dickens learnt to read at an early age and read many books in his childhood.

10. After Dickens had suffered much he became a writer and described his childhood and youth in some of his famous novels.